IB Physics Static and Kinetic Friction

A tutorial sheet on static and kinetic friction problems from subtopic 2.2 forces is given below

  1. A 3.0 kg block is at rest at rest on each of two rough inclined planes. One incline makes an angle of 37° with the horizontal, the other 53°. On which block is a greater force of static friction acting?
  2. A block of mass 2.0 kg is on a rough horizontal table. The coefficient of static friction between the block and the table is 0.4. A horizontal force of 5.0 N to the right is applied to the block. What is the force of static friction between the block and the table?
  3. A block of wood of mass 4.0 kg has a brick of mass 2.0 kg sitting on it. The block rests on a smooth horizontal surface and the block and brick are initially at rest. A constant horizontal force of 12.0 N is applied to the block. What are the speeds of the block and the brick after 12.0 s? Assume that the brick stays on the block and that the coefficients of static friction and kinetic friction between the surfaces are 0.2 and 0.1 respectively.

IB Physics Equations of Motion

Below is a tutorial sheet of harder problems on subtopic 2.1

  1. A ball falls from rest near the surface of the Earth. The ball falls 1.0 m in the last second of its fall. From what vertical height was the ball released? Neglect air resistance.
  2. A stone is released from rest at a height of 200.0 m above the surface of the Earth. At the same instant a ball is projected vertically upwards from the ground from directly below the stone. If they meet after 4.0 s at what speed was the ball projected? Neglect air resistance.
  3. A ball is projected vertically upwards from the surface of the Earth. The ball is above a height of 125.0 m for a total time of 3.0 s. At what speed was the ball projected? Neglect air resistance.
  4. A car of length L moves at a constant velocity u to the east. A truck of length T moves at a constant velocity v to the east. What is the time taken by the car to overtake the truck?
  5. A car of length L moves with a constant acceleration a to the east. A truck of length T moves at a constant velocity v to the east. When the velocity of the car is u it starts to overtake the truck. What is the time taken to overtake the truck?
  6. A particle moves with a constant acceleration a. If its maximum speed is v what is the least time to travel a distance d if it starts from rest?
  7. A particle is initially at rest. Its acceleration increases uniformly from zero to a in a time interval t. What is the distance travelled in this time interval? [at2/6]

IB Physics Vectors

Below is a tutorial sheet on sub topic 1.3 vectors.

  1. What is the component of a force of 5.0 N in a direction at 30° to itself?
  2. What is the component of a force of 4.0 N in a direction at 90° to itself?
  3. An object of weight W is held at rest on a smooth inclined plane of angle of elevation 𝜽 by a horizontal force H. What is the value of H?
  4. An object of weight W is held at rest on a rough inclined plane of angle of elevation 𝜽 by a horizontal force H. If the coefficient of static friction is μ, determine the possible values of H.
  5. Two light inextensible strings are tied to an object of weight W at the same point. The strings make angles of 30° and 60° with the vertical. Determine the tension in each string.
  6. Three light strings of equal length are tied to the same point on an object of weight W. The other ends of the strings are tied to hooks on the ceiling, the strings forming the sides of a regular tetrahedron. What is the tension in each string?

IB Physics Uncertainties

A tutorial sheet on sub topic 1.2 is given below.

  1. The mass of a pencil is measured once. The value is 4g. What is the uncertainty in this measurement?
  2. A ball is released from rest and the time to fall a fixed distance is measured. The times are 0.5s, 0.5s, 0.6s and 0.6s. What is the uncertainty in the time of fall?
  3. A student measures the following value for g in ms-2: 9.81, 9.79, 9.84, 9.81, 9.75, 9.79, 9.83. Give the scientific value of g including its uncertainty. [9.80 ± 0.01 ms-2]
  4. A toy car moves in a straight line along a horizontal laboratory bench. The time taken to move a distance of 350cm is measured 5 times. The values are 6.2s, 6.5s, 6.4s, 6.3s and 6.0s. What is the average speed of the car?
  5. In the previous question the distance is measured 5 times. The values are 340cm, 360cm, 345cm, 365cm, 355 cm. Using the previous time values, what is the average speed of the car?
  6. The mass of a marble is measured five times. The values are 52g, 51g, 52g, 53g, 52g. The diameter is measured five times. The values are 35mm, 33mm, 36mm, 34mm and 35mm. Determine the density of the marble.
  7. A uniform rod can oscillate freely about a horizontal axis through its end point. The time of small oscillations about its equilibrium position is given by T = 2𝜋√[I/(mgh)], where m is the mass of the rod, g the acceleration due to gravity, h the distance from the point of support to the centre of the rod and I is the moment of inertia of the rod about its point of support. The following data sets are obtained for the measurement of m, h and I respectively; {210g, 208g, 209g, 211g, 212g}, {0.50m, 0.49m, 0.51m, 0.48m, 0.49m}, {0.42kgm2, 0.40kgm2, 0.46kgm2, 0.50kgm2, 0.50kgm2}. Determine g from this data.
  8. The radius of a circle is 14.6±0.5cm. Determine the area of the circle to the correct number of significant figures. [(6.70±0.46)×102 cm2]
  9. What is the circumference of the circle in the previous question? [91.7±3.1cm]
  10. If R=1800±36Ω and I=2.1±0.1mA, what is the value of RI? [3.8±0.3V]

IB Physics SpaceTime Diagram

A tutorial sheet of true-false questions on the spacetime diagram is given below.

ɣ=1/√(1-v2/c2)

  1. Albert Einstein was not the first person to use a spacetime diagram.
  2. The path of a particle in the (x,ct) plane on a spacetime diagram is called its world line.
  3. A rigid rod is at rest in the S frame. At t=0 the spacetime coordinates of the ends of the rod in S are A=(0,0) and B=(L0,0). The worldlines of A and B have the equations x=0 and x=L0 respectively.
  4. In question 3 take ɣ = 5/4 and L0 as 2. Using a spacetime diagram the coordinates of A in S' when ct' = 4 are (-2.5,4) and the coordinates of B are (-0.83,4), the length of the rod in S' being 1.7 approximately.
  5. A rigid rod is at rest in the S' frame. At t'=0 the spacetime coordinates of the ends of the rod in S' are P=(0,0) and Q=(L0,0). The worldlines of P and Q have the equations x=0 and x=L0 respectively.

IB Physics Relativity

A tutorial sheet of true-false questions on relativity is given below.

  1. The speed of light (according to the local observer) near a black hole is 3.0x108 m/s. A distant observer considers the speed of light to be much less than this.
  2. The speed of light changes (according to a distant observer) as it passes through a gravitational field.
  3. The speed of light is the same for all observers in a flat space.
  4. Space can expand at a rate greater than c.
  5. Nothing can escape from inside a black hole.
  6. Particles can escape from the event horizon of a black hole.
  7. Light leaving the horizon of a black hole undergoes a gravitational red shift and has an infinite wavelength at infinity and so cannot be detected.
  8. The time coordinate of an event is the same value at all locations in the same inertial reference frame.
  9. If an event occurs at x' at time t' in the inertial reference frame S' the event occurs at time ɣ(t' + v x'/c2) in another inertial frame S.
  10. The proper time interval is the least time interval between two events as reckoned from any inertial reference frame.
  11. The proper time interval is the time interval between two events in the inertial reference frame where the events occur at the same position.
  12. The proper length of a rod is the length of the rod in the inertial reference frame where the rod is at rest.
  13. The rest reference frame for a moving object is the reference frame in which the object is at rest.
  14. On a spacetime diagram the units on each axis have the same scale.
  15. On a spacetime diagram the worldline of a particle of non-zero rest mass cannot have a gradient less than 1.

IB HSC Thermal Physics

A tutorial sheet of true-false questions on thermal physics concepts is given below.

  1. Particles of an ideal gas do not collide with each other.
  2. Particles of an ideal gas all have the same speed.
  3. The ideal gas approximation works best at high temperatures and pressures.
  4. The pressure exerted by a gas is due to the momentum of the particles.
  5. No heat energy flows between two objects at the same temperature.
  6. A large mass at a low temperature has the same amount of heat energy as a smaller mass at a higher temperature.
  7. To find the Kelvin temperature we add 273.16 to the celsius temperature.
  8. An object of higher specific heat capacity takes a longer time interval to undergo a given temperature change than one of lower specific heat capacity.
  9. Heat energy is the amount of energy a substance possesses.
  10. The SI unit for thermal conductivity is the Jm-2s-1K-1
  11. A flat sheet of iron of mass m is left in the Sun and its temperature changes by T. If a flat sheet of iron of mass 2m is left in the Sun for the same time interval its temperature change is T/2.

IB HSC Physics Coulomb's Law

A tutorial sheet of harder problems on Coulomb’s law is given below.

  1. Point charges +4Q and -Q are placed a distance d apart in a vacuum. Where is the resultant electric field zero?
  2. Draw the electric field lines around the charges in question 1.
  3. Two point charges +4Q and +Q are placed a distance d apart in a vacuum. Where is the resultant electric field zero?
  4. Draw the electric field lines around the charges in question 3.
  5. Three equal point charges +Q are placed at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side d. Is the resultant electric field ever zero?
  6. Draw the electric field lines around the charges in question 5.
  7. Four equal point charges +Q are placed at the corners of a square of side d. Is the resultant electric field ever zero?
  8. Draw the electric field lines around the charges in question 7.
  9. Four equal point charges +Q are placed at the corners of a regular tetrahedron of side d. Calculate the magnitude of the resultant force acting on one of the charges. [F√6, where F is the force between two of the charges]
  10. Eight equal point charges +Q are placed at the corners of a cube of side d. Is the resultant electric field zero at the centre of the cube?
  11. *In question 10 what is the magnitude of the resulant electric field at a small distance from the centre of the cube?

HSC Physics Projectiles

A tutorial sheet of harder questions on projectiles is given below. Unless otherwise indicated, neglect air resistance and take g = 9.8 ms -2 .

  1. A ball is thrown at 65 m/s at 32° to the horizontal. At what height does it strike a vertical wall 53 m from the point of projection? [28.6m]
  2. A stone is projected at 24 m/s and strikes a wall 37 m from the point of projection at a height of 15 m above the level of projection. What are the angles of projection to the horizontal? [47.8°,64.3°]
  3. A stone is thrown at 47 m/s at 35° above the horizontal from the edge of a cliff. The stone strikes the sea at an angle of 14° below the horizontal. What is the height of the cliff? [32.4m]
  4. A projectile is thrown at 13° below the horizontal from the edge of a cliff. It hits the sea at 135 m/s at an angle of 23° below the horizontal. What is the speed of projection? [127.5m/s]
  5. A projectile is thrown from a cliff and strikes the sea 56 m from the foot of the cliff at 97 m/s at 49° below the horizontal. What is the speed of projection? [90.7m/s]
  6. If a projectile strikes the sea at 140 m/s at 35° below the horizontal after being in flight for 12.0 s, what is the angle at which it was projected? [+18.0°]
  7. A projectile strikes the sea 65.0 m from the base of a cliff of height 127 m after being projected at 92.0 m/s. What is the angle of projection to the horizontal? [-60.9°]
  8. When a projectile lands below its initial level the maximum horizontal range is obtained at an angle of projection less than 45°. In shotput the shot leaves the hand at a height h above the ground at a speed u. Show that the angle of projection above the horizontal for maximum range is given by tan𝜽=1/(√(1+2gh/v2)).
  9. A projectile is thrown at an angle of 45° to the horizontal. Sketch, on the same axes, the path of the projectile when (i) air resistance is neglected, (ii) air resistance is included.
  10. A horizontal tunnel has a height of 3.00 m. A ball is thrown inside the tunnel with an initial speed of 18.0 m/s. What is the greatest horizontal distance the ball can travel before it bounces for the first time?[25.5m]

IB Physics Electric and Magnetic Fields

A tutorial sheet on electric and magnetic fields follows.

  1. A charge +Q is at rest in the laboratory. Show the electric field around the charge in the laboratory reference frame.
  2. A charge +Q moves to the right at a constant velocity v relative to the laboratory. Draw the electric field of the charge (i) in the reference frame of the charge, (ii) in the laboratory reference frame.
  3. Two charges, +Q and +Q, both move to the right at a constant velocity v relative to the laboratory on parallel paths. In the reference frame of the charges, the line joining the charges is perpendicular to the velocity of the charges and has length d. Determine the magnitude of the force between the charges in (i) the reference frame of the charges, (ii) the laboratory reference frame.
  4. A current I flows in the same direction in each of two long parallel wires. Determine the force between the wires in (i) the laboratory reference frame, (ii) a refernce frame moving parallel to the wires at the speed of the charges.
  5. An electric field exists in the laboratory reference frame S. A reference frame S' moves at a constant velocity relative to the laboratory frame. (i) is an electric field present in s' ? (ii) is a magnetic field present in S' ?
  6. A magnetic field exists in the laboratory reference frame S. A reference frame S' moves at a constant velocity relative to the laboratory frame. (i) is an electric field present in S' ? (ii) is a magnetic field present in S' ?

HSC Physics Exam 2018

Here are some final study notes for the HSC Physics examination on Thursday 1st November 2018. This list will be updated during the time up to the exam.

Space

  1. Weight and gravitational force are the same.
  2. Work done is the change in gravitational potential energy.
  3. Work done is the area under the gravitational force versus distance graph.
  4. Gravitational force is the negative gradient of the gravitational potential energy versus distance graph.
  5. "g-force" is not a force. The net force that accelerates an astronaut upwards is the force of the seat pushing upwards minus the weight of the astronaut pulling downwards. g-force is the ratio of the seat force to the weight force.
  6. A train is moving to the east and slowing down with deceleration g. A person in the train drops a ball. Relative to the person in the train the ball moves with a vertical acceleration component g and a horizontal acceleration component g and appears to fall forward in a straight line at 45° below the horizontal.
  7. The escape speed from a point in a gravitational field is the speed with which a mass is projected so that its total energy is zero.
  8. An object is said to be weightless when it is in a reference frame that is moving at the acceleration due to gravity.
  9. Time dilation is when the time interval measured on a moving clock is less than the time interval measured on a clock at rest.

Motors and Generators

  1. The torque on a coil carrying a current is maximum when it is parallel to the magnetic field.
  2. The torque acting on one side of a square coil carrying a current in a magnetic field is one half of the total torque acting on the coil.
  3. When a conductor moves relative to a uniform magnetic field an emf is induced in the conductor. If the emf allows a current to flow a force opposing the change is exerted by the magnetic field on the current.
  4. When a conductor moves relative to a uniform electric field no emf is induced in the conductor.
  5. In induction effects, the external magnetic field exerts a force on the induced current that opposes the change.
  6. The presence of the iron core in a transformer allows the primary coil to produce a stronger magnetic field than with an air core. The iron core carries the magnetic flux from the primary coil through the secondary coil.

From Ideas to Implementation

  1. The electric force acting on an electron in a uniform electric field is in the opposite direction to the field lines.
  2. The magnetic force acting on a moving charge is perpendicular to both the velocity vector and the magnetic field direction.
  3. For a constant intensity of light, the number of electrons released per second in the photoelectric effect decreases as the frequency increases.
  4. For a constant frequency of light, the number of electrons released per second increases as the intensity of the light increases.
  5. The Planck radiation curve has a peak since relatively few atoms in the wall of a hot object are vibrating at high frequencies (each sending out a high energy photon) and many are vibrating at lower frequencies (each sending out a low energy photon).
  6. In the photovoltaic effect (in a solar cell) an electron in the valence band of the p-type semiconductor absorbs a photon (whose energy is greater than the band gap) creating a hole in the valence band and an electron in the conduction band. An electric field exists across the p-n junction and this pulls electrons to the n side where they can flow out of the cell if it is connected to a load resistor.

Quanta to Quarks

  1. The scattering of a small number of alpha particles through a large angle by a thin gold foil is experimantal evidence for a small positively charged nucleus with most of the volume of the atom empty space.
  2. The line spectrum of hydrogen is evidence for quantised energy levels in the hydrogen atom.
  3. Chadwick collided neutrons with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms and measured the speed of each target atom after collision. The mass of the neutron was determined by applying the laws of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy to the elastic collisions.
  4. Binding energy is the energy released when protons and neutrons combine to form a nucleus. Energy is released in nuclear fission because the total binding energy after reaction is greater than the total binding energy before reaction.
  5. "mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing", Einstein quote.
  6. The anti-neutrino and electron given off in beta decay of a neutron share the released energy and momentum. In this process a down quark in a neutron is converted to an up quark by the release of a W minus boson which decays into an electron and an anti-neutrino. This decay happens as the nucleus is unstable due to it having too many neutrons for the number of protons present.

IB Physics Longitudinal Waves

A tutorial sheet of  longitudinal wave questions is given below.

  1. A longitudinal progressive wave moving from left to right has a frequency f and wavelength λ. Two particles, P and Q, have equilibrium positions one-half a wavelength apart. At a certain instant P is at rest and is displaced to the left of its equilibrium position.(a) What is the amplitude of oscillation of P? (b) What is the displacement of Q from its equilibrium position?
  2. Do we have nodes in longitudinal progressive waves?
  3. In a longitudinal standing wave at which points in the pattern is the pressure greatest?
  4. In a longitudinal standing wave at which points in the pattern is the density greatest?
  5. In a longitudinal standing wave do all particles have the same frequency of vibration?
  6. In a longitudinal standing wave are all of the particles vibrating in phase?
  7. In a longitudinal standing wave the pressure mimima (rarefactions) are positions where the particles have zero displacement from their equilibrium position. Why is this?
  8. Are the pressure maxima (compressions) at a position of zero particle displacement?
  9. A closed pipe of length 1.5m is sounding its third harmonic. If the maximum possible displacement of a particle in the pipe from its equilibrium position is a what is the maximum displacement of a particle 0.25 m from the closed end of the tube? The speed of sound is 343 m/s and neglect the end correction.
  10. Where would you hear a louder sound, at the anti-node or at the node of displacement of a standing wave?

HSC Physics Quanta to Quarks

With the old Quanta to Quarks elective being examined for the last time this November a list of true-false questions on concepts that are often misunderstood is given below. This list will be updated during the next six weeks.

Rutherford Model of the Atom

  1. Rutherford's model of the atom has a central charge concentration made of protons and neutrons.
  2. The alpha particles that bounce back from the gold foil hit the nuclei of the atoms in the foil.
  3. Rutherford's model did not have electrons orbiting the nucleus in rings
  4. In Rutherford scattering the number of alpha partices scattered through 60 degrees is one-half the number scattered through 30 degrees.
  5. If the thickness of the gold foil is doubled the number of alpha particles scattered through each angle is halved.
  6. In the Geiger and Marsden 1910 scattering experiment the number of alpha particles scattered through an angle greater than 90 degrees was 1 in 800.

Radioactivity

  1. Alpha particles released in the decay of Ra-226 have different kinetic energies.
  2. Beta particles given off in the decay of Sr-90 have the same kinetic energies.
  3. Gamma rays are released when an electron makes a transition to a lower energy level in Co-60.
  4. Gamma rays can be detected using a cloud chamber.
  5. Alpha particle tracks in a cloud chamber are thicker and longer than those of beta particles.
  6. In beta minus decay an electron is ejected from the nucleus.
  7. Half-life is the time for exactly one half of the original number of nuclei to decay.
  8. Technetium-99m is a radioisotope of half-life 6 h that emits gamma radiation and is used as a tracer in nuclear medicine.

Hydrogen Spectrum

  1. The line spectrum of hydrogen is evidence for quantised energy levels in the hydrogen atom.
  2. The longest wavelength in the Balmer series for hydrogen is 656.1 nm.
  3. The shortest wavelength in the Balmer series for hydrogen is 364.5 nm.
  4. The wavelengths in the Balmer series become closer together when placed in order from longest to shortest.
  5. The four longest wavelengths in the Balmer series can be seen by the human eye.
  6. The energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
  7. The energy of the photon released when an electron makes a transition from n i =5 to n f =3 is 1.0 eV.
  8. The shortest wavelength in a certain spectral series for hydrogen is 2.28 μm. The longest wavelength in this series is 7.46 μm.

Modifications of the Bohr Model of the Atom

  1. The Bohr postulates can be applied to an atom with more than one electron.
  2. The energy required to remove the electron from the ground state of a helium atom with one electron only is 54.4 eV.
  3. The difference in intensity of spectral lines is explained using additional quantum numbers to n. This predicts extra states for the electron to exist in. This allowed the development of selection rules and the calculation of transition probabilites.
  4. The state of the electron in the hydrogen atom is now described by 4 quantum numbers. These are n (1,2,3..), l (0,1,2,..n-1), m (-l, -2,-1,0,1,2,...l) and s (-1/2 or 1/2).
  5. The Zeeman effect in hydrogen is the splitting of spectral lines that occurs when a magnetic field is applied to the gas. The magnetic field interacts with the orbiting electron creating extra energy levels allowing more electron transitions.In the Balmer series, this creates 2 extra spectral lines equally spaced on either side of the spectral line observed with no magnetic field.

Neutrons

  1. When beryllium is bombarded with alpha particles a highly penetrating radiation is given off that can eject protons with considerable velocities from matter containing hydrogen.
  2. Neutron scattering is a non-destructive technique to probe materials such as turbine blades for defects as neutrons have no charge and have a wavelength comparable to the spacing between atoms and so are diffracted producing an interference pattern from which the arrangement of atoms can be determined.

Heisenberg

  1. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle limits us measuring the exact position of an electron.
  2. Matrix mechanics uses matrices to represent observable quantities and the eigenvalues of the matrix are the observable values.
  3. The uncertainty principle is a consequence of the wave nature of an electron.

Pauli

  1. Pauli proposed in 1930 the existence of an uncharged particle of very small mass that carried energy and momentum to explain the continuous spectrum of beta decay. This was later called the neutrino.
  2. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.

Fermi

  1. Fermi found that slower moving neutrons could produce more radioactivity in silver than faster moving neutrons. He deduced that slower moving neutrons, produced by collisions in paraffin wax, were more easily captured than faster moving neutrons.
  2. Fermi was in charge of the group that carried out the first sustained controlled fission reaction of U-235 using graphite blocks as a moderator and cadmium control rods on December 2 1942.

Particle Accelerators

  1. The drift tubes in a linear accelerator increase in length to allow allow an alternating voltage of constant frequency to be be applied across each tube so that the speed of the beam increases.
  2. The LHC uses superconducting magnets as these produce very strong magnetic fields using low currents.
  3. A cyclotron uses magnetic fields to increase the speed of the charges.
  4. A synchrotron uses a time varying magnetic field to allow for the increase in relativistic mass of a charge as it travels faster so that it can cross the dees at regular time intervals.

Standard Model

  1. The mediator of the strong nuclear force is a gluon.
  2. In beta decay the quark composition of the particles does not change.
  3. The strong nuclear force holds protons and neutrons together.
  4. The strong nuclear force holds quarks together.

HSC Physics Ideas to Implementation

With the old Ideas to Implementation topic being examined for the last time this November a list of true-false questions on concepts that are often misunderstood is given below. This list will be updated during the year.

Cathode Rays

  1. A paddle wheel spins showing that cathode rays have momentum.
  2. A paddle wheel will spin if the pressure in the tube is zero.
  3. Cathode rays are not emitted when positive ions in a discharge tube impact on the cathode.
  4. Cathode rays cause glass to phosphoresce.
  5. Heinrich Hertz found that cathode rays could not travel through a metal foil.
  6. Heinrich Hertz observed that cathode rays were deflected by an electric field.
  7. When the pressure in a gas discharge tube is reduced the order of formation of structures in the tube is Faraday dark space, positive column, striated positive column, Crookes dark space, negative glow.
  8. Dark spaces in a discharge tube are caused by destructive interference.
  9. Cathode rays have their greatest speed in the bright areas.

Electric and Magnetic Fields

  1. In J J Thomson's original experiment he used perpendicular electric and magnetic fields to give equal magnitude forces on a cathode ray causing them to move in a straight line.

Blackbody Radiation Curve

  1. An example of a blackbody is a piece of iron painted black.
  2. In the blackbody spectrum there are not many photons released at low frequencies.
  3. In the blackbody spectrum there are many photons released at high frequencies.

Photoelectric Effect

  1. The frequency of light is the number of photons passing a point in one second.
  2. If the frequency of the light increases there are more photons passing a point in one second.
  3. If the frequency of the light increases the intensity of the light remains constant.
  4. The photoelectric current does not change if the intensity of the light is kept constant and the frequency is increased.
  5. Heinrich Hertz found that when ultraviolet light was directed on a spark gap a spark was not produced when the width of the gap was increased.
  6. Photoelectrons ejected by exposure to bright light have a greater maximum kinetic energy than those ejected by dimmer light of the same frequency.

Conduction in Metals

  1. The crystal lattice is composed of positively charged ions. Conduction electrons are attracted to the lattice ions and this causes resistance in a metal.
  2. Resistance in a copper wire is due to collisions between the conduction electrons and the stationary copper atoms in the wire.

Band Theory

  1. The valence band in an insulator is not full.
  2. Intrinsic silicon has no electrons in the conduction band at room temperature.
  3. Conduction in intrinsic silicon is due to electrons moving in the valence band.

Bragg Experiment

  1. The x-ray diffraction pattern produced by a crystal is a series of alternating bright and dark fringes.

Superconductors

  1. Magnetic fields cannot pass through all superconductors.

IB Physics Data Booklet

Here are notes to assist students in using the IB Physics Data Booklet. These notes will be added to and arranged in syllabus order during the year as other topics are taught in schools.

Topic 10 Fields

  1. Electrostatic potential due to a single point charge, . Enter the sign of the charge when substituting for q.
  2. Electrostatic potential energy of two point charges, . Enter the sign of each charge when substituting for q. Negative potential energy means the charges attract and positive work must be done to separate the system to a state where the charges do not influence each other.
  3. Electric field strength due to a single point charge, . Enter the sign of the source charge when substituting for q. A negative field value means towards the source charge, a positive value means away.

HSC Physics Motors and Generators

With the old Motors and Generators topic being examined for the last time this November a list of true-false questions on concepts that are often misunderstood is given below. This list will be updated during the year.

DC Motor

  1. A common answer is "a DC motor converts electrical energy into kinetic energy". This means that the heat energy released by the current flowing in the coils is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the coils.
  2. A 12 V battery has zero internal resistance. It is connected to a coil of resistance 4Ω that can spin freely in a magnetic field. In one second the coil gains 36 J of kinetic energy.
  3. The back emf in a motor increases when the speed of the coils decreases.

AC Generator

  1. A common answer is "an AC generator converts kinetic energy into electrical energy". This means that the kinetic energy of the coils is transformed into the heat energy given off by the current flowing in the load resistor.
  2. The work done by an external force in turning the handle of an AC generator in one second is 40 J. If there is no friction in the axle as the coil turns the potential difference across the generator terminals is 40 V.
  3. The kinetic energy of the coils of a generator is doubled. The size of the induced emf is doubled.

Eddy Currents

  1. The induced eddy currents in a spinning metal disk in a uniform magnetic field experience a magnetic force that slows down the disk.
  2. A metal disk is spinning in a uniform magnetic field with all of its area in the field. The plane of the disk is perpendicular to the field lines. No eddy currents are induced in the disc.
  3. A copper disk is spinning clockwise. The north pole of a magnet is held above the disc. The induced eddy currents circulate clockwise in the disc.
  4. A copper disc is at rest and can spin on a smooth axle. The north pole of a bar magnet is moved clockwise over the disc. The disc moves counterclockwise.

AC Induction Motor

  1. In an AC induction motor a rotating magnetic field passes through the squirrel cage. The squirrel cage turns because it is repelled by the increasing magnetic flux.

Transformer

  1. The iron core of a transformer increases the magnetic flux entering the secondary coil.

Electromagnetic Induction

  1. A straight copper wire is moving with its length and velocity vector both perpendicular to a uniform electric field. An induced emf occurs in the wire.
  2. When a conductor moves relative to a magnetic field with its velocity vector parallel to the magnetic field vector an emf is induced in the conductor.
  3. When a reference frame moves relative to a magnetic field there is no electric field in the reference frame.

  4. When a conductor moves through a magnetic field a current is induced in the conductor that produces a magnetic field that exerts a force on the conductor.

  5. Imagine a rapidly flowing salt water river flowing from west to east through the Earth's magnetic field. A voltmeter is placed on a bridge over the river. One terminal of the voltmeter is connected to a wire placed in the water at the north bank and the terminal is connected to a wire placed in the water at the south bank. The voltmeter gives zero reading.

HSC Physics Two Dimensional Collisions

A tutorial sheet of two dimensional collision problems is given below.

  1. A particle A of mass m is at rest on a smooth horizontal surface. It is struck off centre by a moving particle B of mass M. The magnitude of the change in momentum of B due to the collision is ∆p. What is the magnitude of the change in momentum of A?
  2. A particle of mass m has a momentum vector p to the north. An identical particle has a momentum vector of 2p to the east. (a) What is the magnitude of the total momentum of this system? (b) The particles collide and join together. What is the kinetic energy of the combined mass after collision?
  3. A ball of mass m moving at a velocity u to the east strikes an identical ball that is at rest. After collision one ball moves to the north-east at a speed u/2. What is the speed of the second ball after collision? [0.737u]
  4. Two objects of the same mass having the same initial speed collide and join together. If the comined mass moves away at one-half their initial speed, what is the angle between the initial velocity vectors of each object? [120°]
  5. Two particles of equal mass undergo a glancing perfectly elastic collision. If one of the particles was initially at rest, determine the angle between the velocity vectors after collision. [90°]

IB HSC Physics Doppler Effect for Sound

A tutorial sheet of  Doppler effect questions for sound is given below.

  1. The speed of sound in still air is v. A train blowing its whistle is moving to the east at a speed vs. What is the speed of sound at a point (a) east of the train, (b) north of the train, (c) west of the train, (d) south of the train.
  2. When a source of sound waves moves towards you do you measure an increase or decrease in the speed of the waves?
  3. When the moving source emitting sound waves is directly opposite the observer is there an observed frequency shift in the sound? [no]
  4. A train sounding its whistle moves to the east at a speed vs. An observer moves at a velocity vo towards the train. Is the observed frequency the same as the case when the observer is at rest and the train is approaching at a speed vs+vo?
  5. Draw the wave pattern when (a) vs < v, (b) vs = v and (c) vs > v. In the last case show the bow wave.
  6. A car traveling at 10 m/s sounds its horn, which has a frequency of 500 Hz, and this is heard in another car which is travelling behind the first car in the same direction at 20 m/s. The sound can also be heard in the second car by reflection from a bridge. If the speed of sound in air is 340 m/s what frequencies will the driver of the second car hear? [514 Hz,545 Hz]
  7. An observer in a mountain town hears a train whistle and 3.0 s later hears the start of the echo from a cliff. The echo's frequency is 0.90 that of the sound heard directly.(a) how far is the train from the cliff? (b) how fast and in what direction is the train moving? [510 m, 17.9 m/s towards observer, train is between cliff and the observer]
  8. A transmitter sends out waves of frequency f and speed v.A target moves towards the transmitter at a speed u. Show that the frequency of the reflected waves received back at the transmitter is f(v+u)/(v-u). If u is much smaller than v show that this expression becomes f(1+2u/v).

HSC Physics Formulae Sheet

Here are some notes to assist students in using  the new HSC Physics Formulae Sheet that will be used in HSC examinations from 2019. These notes will be updated during 2018 and 2019 as the topics are taught in schools.

  1. The weight (F) of an object is given by F=mg, where m is mass and g is acceleration due to gravity.
  2. The force of static friction (F) between two surfaces is given by F≤μsN, where μs is the coefficient of static friction and N is the normal reaction force between the two surfaces.
  3. Linear momentum (p) is given by p = mv, where m is mass and v is velocity.
  4. Linear momentum is conserved in all collisions or explosions. This means that for a system of two masses
  5. Kinetic energy is only conserved in elastic collisions. This means that for a system of two masses
  6. The Doppler effect equation for sound waves is , where f' is the frequency measured by the observer, f is the frequency of the sound waves emitted by the source, v is the speed of sound and vo and vs are the velocities of the observer and source respectively. Note: Draw the arrow from the observer to the source. This is the positive direction for choosing the signs of the velocity vectors, vo and vs
  7. The heat conduction equation is where the negative sign indicates that the heat flow ∆Q is from the high temperature end to the lower temperature end and the change in temperature ∆T is the final temperature minus the initial temperature. The thermal conductivity of the material is k, the cross sectional area that the heat flows through in a time ∆t is A and ∆x is the distance between the end points.